## Mathematics

**The Middle School Mathematics Department believes that all students have the capacity to learn mathematics at a high level. We endeavor to move students along the learning continuum while challenging and supporting them as they develop the dispositions, skills, knowledge and understanding to effectively use and apply mathematics inside and outside of the classroom.**

**Content/Skills**

The ISM Mathematics curriculum is designed to provide students with the opportunity to focus deeply on the major work of each grade. This focus helps students gain strong foundations, including a solid understanding of concepts, a high degree of procedural skill and fluency, and the ability to apply the mathematics they know to solve problems inside and outside of the classroom. Our curriculum is a coherent body of knowledge made up of interconnected concepts with articulated progressions from grade to grade so that students can build new understanding onto foundations built in previous years.

We seek to develop varieties of expertise in our students through emphasis on The Standards for Mathematical Practices. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. These elements support a student’s ability to learn and apply more demanding mathematics concepts and procedures while calling on students to practice applying mathematical ways of thinking to real-world issues and challenges. They prepare students to think and reason mathematically.

Standards for Mathematical Practices:

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

**Instructional Practices**

Instructional practices in the Middle School Mathematics program are student-centered and designed to pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skills and fluency and application with equal intensity. Instructional decisions are informed through ongoing formative assessment to ensure that all students continually build skills and have access to rich curricular content.

**Courses**

The __Grade 5__ Mathematics course focuses on number and operations in base ten, operations with fractions, and measurement and data. Specifically, students will understand place value, perform operations with decimals, perform operations with fractions, and understand the concept of volume.

The __Grade 6__ Mathematics course focuses on ratios and proportional relationships, the number system, expressions and equations, Statistics, and Geometry. Specifically, students will use rational reasoning to solve problems, divide fractions by fractions, extend previous understanding of numbers to the system of rational numbers, solve one-variable equations and inequalities, and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.

The __Grade 7__ Mathematics course focuses on ratios and proportional relationships, the number system, expressions and equations, and geometry of triangles. Specifically, students will use proportional relationships to solve real world and mathematical problems, use operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers, and solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

The __Grade 8__ Mathematics course focuses on expressions and equations, functions, geometry and statistics. Specifically, students will work with radicals and integer exponents, scientific notation, understand proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations, solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations, understand geometrical congruence and similarity, apply the Pythagorean Theorem, and solve real-world mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones and spheres.

**Mathematics Honors**

In Grades 7 and 8, we offer courses for students who qualify for a more rigorous program than standard-level mathematics. The accelerated curriculum of the Mathematics Honors program challenges advanced learners who demonstrate superior aptitude in reasoning and problem solving to use higher-order thinking skills.

The aims and objectives of the Math Honors program are:

- To broaden and deepen student appreciation of mathematics by engaging and extending students with more demanding material, problem-solving and enrichment beyond the challenges provided in the standard math curriculum.
- To provide students with the opportunity to see and apply mathematical skills and concepts in everyday life, thereby making evident the fundamental importance of mathematics in the world around them.
- To develop inquisitive and active problem solvers who regularly use higher level thinking skills.
- To expand student understanding and appreciation of the nature of mathematical thinking.

Honors students are expected to apply concepts and make connections to new situations, demonstrate superior reasoning and problem-solving abilities, be independent and desire challenges beyond the scope of a standard mathematics classroom.

The __Grade 7__ Mathematics Honors course focuses on algebraic reasoning, introduction to linear functions, the number system, geometry, and probability. Specifically, students will work with scientific notation, extend algebraic reasoning and problem solving skills, investigate the concepts of slope and linear relationships in their multiple representations, solve real-world problems involving area and volume, derive and apply the Pythagorean Theorem, and develop their understanding of chance.

The __Grade 8__ Mathematics Honors course focuses on algebraic reasoning, geometry, introduction to functions, systems of equations, quadratic functions, and statistics and probability. Specifically, students will solve equations and inequalities with fractional terms, explore the Pythagorean Theorem and its applications, investigate the properties and relationships in geometry, examine the concepts of relations and functions, solve systems of equations with two variables and graph systems of inequalities, factor quadratic functions and solve quadratic equations and calculate simple and compound probability.